Agreement Secret

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A secret treaty is an international treaty by which States parties have agreed to conceal the existence or substance of the Treaty from other states and the public. [1] Such an obligation to secrecy of the agreement may be included in the legal act itself or in a separate agreement. [1] However, this should not apply when it comes to trade secrets. The application of “secret agreements and obligations between several allies or between one state and another state” continued during the First World War; Some of them were intransigent and left at the end of the war “a bitter legacy of the dispute.” [6] One of the important secret contracts of this period was the treaty of the Ottoman-German alliance secretly concluded in Constantinople on 2 August 1914. [7] The treaty provided that Germany and Turkey would remain neutral in the conflict between Austria-Hungary and Serbia, but if Russia intervened “through active military measures”, the two countries would become military allies. [7] Another important secret treaty was the Treaty of London, concluded on 26 April 1915, which promised Italy certain territorial concessions in exchange for accession to the war on the side of the Triple Agreement (Allied). [9] Another secret treaty was the Treaty of Bucharest concluded on 17 August 1916 between Romania and the three powers of the Agreement (Britain, France, Italy and Russia); As part of the treaty, Romania pledged to attack Austria-Hungary and not seek a separate peace in exchange for certain territorial gains. [10] Article 16 of the treaty provided that “current regulations be kept secret.” [11] One of the most famous secret treaties in history was the secret additional protocol to the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact of 23 August 1939 between the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany, negotiated by Soviet Foreign Minister VyacheSlav Molotov and German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop. [24] The pact itself, a 10-year non-aggression agreement was public, but the additional secret protocol (replaced by a similar secret protocol, the German-Soviet border treaty next month) decoupled spheres of influence in Eastern Europe between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, placing Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Besarabian (Romanian part) and Eastern Poland in the Soviet sphere , as well as Western Poland and Lithuania. [24] The existence of the secret protocol was not revealed until 1989; When it became public, it sparked outrage in the Baltic States.

[24] [25] [26] US President Woodrow Wilson was an opponent of secret diplomacy and considered it a threat to peace. He made the abolition of secret diplomacy the first point of his fourteen points (in a speech to Congress on January 8, 1918, after the United States entered the war). [17] Wilson “dissociated the United States from the Past Secret Commitments of the Allies and tried to suppress them forever once the war was won.” [18] The Fourteen Points were based on a draft document developed by Walter Lippmann and his colleagues for the investigation, Isaiah Bowman, Sidney Mezes and David Hunter Miller. [19] Lippmann`s project was a direct reaction to the secret contracts Lippman had shown by The Minister of War Newton D. Baker. [19] Lippman`s task was to “take the secret treaties, analyze the tolerable parts and separate them from those we thought were unbearable, and then develop a position that conceded as much as possible to the Allies, but which removed the poison.

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